Our current understanding of the history of military UFO (Flying Saucer) investigations
is that they began in 1941 with the first crash recovery of a saucer
in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. It is believed that some exploitation (reverse
engineering) of this event was integrated into the Manhattan Atomic
Bomb Project, but that significant efforts did not occur until the July
1947 New Mexico events. Both SECRET cover stories and TOP SECRET research
and development projects were started to begin unraveling the greatest
technological and biological opportunity in the history of humanity.
"Secrecy is a form of government regulation," is the opening phrase
of executive summary of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government
Secrecy, 1997. "Excessive secrecy has significant consequences for the
national interest when, as a result, policymakers are not fully informed,
government is not held accountable for its actions, and most importantly
the public cannot engage in an informed debate." The 200-page report
can be found at www.access.gpo.gov/int
or by calling 202-512-1530 and requesting S. Doc. 105-2.
It is critical to remember how security classifications work. Each
document, individual or groups of individuals is compartmentalized based
on a "need to know." So just because an individual would have a SECRET
or TOP SECRET security clearance does not mean that an individual would
have access to similarly classified material. In general, these structures
are and were very effective in maintaining security. Security classifications
have changed over time; in the 1947 timeframe, military documents were
either CONFIDENTIAL, RESTRICTED, SECRET, TOP SECRET or TOP SECRET/CODEWORD.
Since each government agency establishes their own security procedures,
it is possible to find many variations in security policy and labeling.
For example, CIA, NSA, and DoD have different but compatible procedures.
A sophisticated program to extract Nazi technical and intelligence
personnel and assign them selectively.
Declassified in 1997 as part of the GAO's investigation sponsered by
the late Congressman Schift (Rep - New Mexico) in the Roswell incident,
project SIGN began in 1947 as an Air Force investigation of UFOs, headed
by Col. H. M. McCoy, Chief of Intelligence, Air Materiel Command, Wright
Patterson AFB, Dayton Ohio. Project SIGN ended in early 1949 when the
name was changed to Project GRUDGE, though Col. McCoy remained in charge
of the successor project. The 900 pages of released documents are primarily
UFOB intelligence reports, some with good data and administrative correspondence,
green fireball reports of 48-49 in the desert southwest. The Fund for
UFO Research has an excellent summary of the Air Force's project SIGN
At approximately 3.00 p.m. on the afternoon of 24 June 1947, pilot
Kenneth Arnold had his now-classic UFO encounter near the Cascade Mountains,
Washington State. According to Arnold, he viewed nine, elliptical-shaped
objects flying in a wedge-like formation and stated that the objects
flew as a saucer would if it were skimmed across a pool of water. The
Flying Saucer mystery had begun. In the weeks and months after Arnold’s
now-historic encounter, a wealth of other reports reached both the military
and the media.
On 28 June, while flying at a height of 10,000 feet and 30 miles northwest
of Lake Meade, Nevada, an Air Force Lieutenant reported seeing five
or six white, circular-shaped UFOs in close formation and traveling
at a speed of approximately 285 miles per hour.
The following day, a party of three – including two scientists – reported
seeing a large UFO near the White Sands Missile Range. They were able
to keep the object in view for almost a full minute and described it
as disk-shaped, moving at high speed and with no discernible wings.
On 7 July 1947, five Portland, Oregon, police officers reported varying
numbers of disks flying over different parts of the city; and on the
same day, William Rhoads of Phoenix, Arizona, saw an object not dissimilar
to that reported by Kenneth Arnold. Seventy-two hours later, a Mr. Woodruff,
a Pan-American Airways mechanic, reported seeing a circular-shaped UFO
flying at high speed near Harmon Field, Newfoundland.
As the summer of 1947 drew to a close and the Air Force had become
an independent entity of the military, Air Intelligence demanded a report
from Air Materiel Command regarding the then-current opinions on "flying
disks". Lieutenant General Nathan F. Twining, the Commander of the Air
Materiel Command at Wright Field, held a conference with individuals
attached to the Propeller Laboratories of Engineering Division T-3,
the Air Institute of Technology, and the Office of Chief Engineering
Division. The result was a 23 September 1947, memorandum sent by Twining
to Brig. General George Schulgen, Chief of the Air Intelligence Requirements
Division. It concluded that:
a. The phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious.
b. There are objects probably approximating the shape of a disk,
of such appreciable size as to appear to be as large as man-made aircraft.
c. There is a possibility that some of the incidents may be caused
by natural phenomena, such as meteors.
d. The reported operating characteristics such as extreme rates of
climb, maneuverability, and actions which must be considered evasive
when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar, lend belief
to the possibility that some of the objects are controlled either
manually, automatically, or remotely.
e. The apparent common description of the objects is as follows:
(1) Metallic or light reflecting.
(2) Absence of trail, except in a few instances when the object apparently
was operating under high performance conditions
(3) Circular or elliptical in shape, flat on bottom and domed on top.
(4) Several reports of well kept formation flights varying from three
to nine objects.
(5) Normally no associated sound, except in three instances a substantial
rumbling roar was noted.
(6) Level flight speeds normally above 300 knots are estimated.
f. It is possible within the present U.S. knowledge - provided extensive
detailed development is undertaken - to construct a piloted aircraft
which has the general description of the object in subparagraph (e)
above which would be capable of anapproximate range of 7,000 miles
at subsonic speeds.
g. Any development in this country along the lines indicated would
be extremely expensive, time consuming, and at the considerable expense
of current projects and therefore, if directed, should be set up independently
of existing projects.
h. Due consideration must be given to the following:
(1) The possibility that these objects are of domestic origin - the
product of some high security project not known to AC/AS-2 or this
(2) The lack of physical evidence in the shape of crash recovered
exhibits which would undeniably prove the existence of these objects.
(3) The possibility that some foreign nation has a form of propulsion,
possibly nuclear, which is outside of our domestic knowledge.
As a result, Air Materiel Command requested that a directive be issued assigning
a permanent project to study the UFO phenomenon. On 30 December 1947,
Major General L. C. Craigie, Director of Research and Development, issued
an order that would establish Project Sign as the investigative body
tasked with examining UFO reports. It would be the role of Sign to:
“… collect, collate, evaluate and distribute to interested government
agencies and contractors all information concerning sightings and phenomena
in the atmosphere which can be construed to be of concern to the national
During the first six months of 1948, Project Sign studied UFO reports
at Wright-Patterson AFB and focused much of its attention on the possibility
that some UFOs were, indeed, other-worldly in origin.
On 5 August 1948, the Project Sign team determined that it was time
for an evaluation of the data obtained. As a result, a Top Secret Estimate
of the Situation was prepared by the US Air Force’s Air Technical Intelligence
Center, which concluded that UFOs were interplanetary spacecraft. This
was to cause widespread dismay and concern amongst the higher echelons
of the military and the conclusions of the report were rejected, largely
on the orders of Chief of Staff, General Hoyt Vandenberg, who argued
that the Estimate was bereft of any firm evidence to support such beliefs.
As a result of this, the ET-hypothesis lost favor within Sign; and those
involved in the production of the report were rapidly reassigned alongside
rumors of a lack of morale within the project.
Nevertheless, by the end of 1948, Project Sign had received several
hundred UFO reports, of which 167 had been classed as “good”; and almost
40 of which were considered to be “unknown”. By 16 December 1948, however,
the work of Sign (much of which supported the ET-hypothesis) came to
a close; and Brigadier General Donald Putt changed the name and made
way for the more debunking-oriented Project Grudge.
If the Estimate of the Situation report was rejected by General Vandenberg,
one might ask, is that because the conclusion was based on faulty data
or is there a more sinister scenario? It is known that the project only
carried a 2A restricted classification (with 1A being the highest);
and whilst the project could, under required circumstances, be assigned
a higher clearance, this suggests strongly that Sign personnel did not
have blanket need-to-know with respect to the UFO mystery. Interestingly,
the author and investigator Kevin Randle has spoken with a U.S. colonel
who had worked with ATIC in the late 1940s and who confirmed the existence
of the Estimate of the Situation and was aware that it had been hand-delivered
to Vandenberg. According to the colonel, Vandenberg ordered that two
paragraphs be removed from the Estimate – both of which referred to
UFO crashes in New Mexico. Vandenberg’s actions seem to suggest that
(a) Project Sign’s conclusions were being manipulated from the very
beginning; and (b) there were those within the military that wanted
Sign kept strictly out of the crashed UFO/Majestic 12 loop.
Declassified on July 23, 1997, Project Grudge was originally
released in August of 1949 as a SECRET Technical Report (NO 102-AC
49/15-100) by the headquarters of the Air Materiel Command, Wright
Patterson AFB, Dayton Ohio. Approved by Lt. Col. Hemstreet and
Col. Watson, it is 406 pages long and covers a large number of
UFO sightings along with investigation analysis, conclusions,
and supplementary reports. Overall, it is just the basic background
work on pedestrian UFO sightings by many credible military witnesses.
No discussion of crashes, alien bodies, or the other TOP SECRET
material found in more classified reports — just the way you would
The following extract (classified SECRET) is taken from the SUMMARY to the
U.S. Air Force’s PROJECT GRUDGE TECHNICAL REPORT on UNIDENTIFIED FLYING
OBJECTS of August 1949. Prepared by Lt. H. W. Smith and Mr. G. W. Towles
for the Commanding General Harold E. Watson, Colonel, USAF, Chief Intelligence
Department, it states:
While there are approximately 375 incidents on record, only incidents Nos.
1 thru 244 are encompassed in this report. Of the later incidents,
many have not yet been investigated, few have been completely tabulated,
and none have been submitted to the consulting agencies. It is certain
that better over-all results will be obtained in the analysis of the
later reports, as these incidents generally have been more completely
investigated. Since 5 December 1948, a series of recurring phenomena
described as “green fireballs” have been reported in the general vicinity
of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dr. Lincoln La Paz, noted meteoritic expert,
has been directly, though unofficially, associated with the investigation
of these sightings and has himself observed the phenomena. Dr. La
Paz states he is convinced the green fireballs are not ordinary meteors.
This group of incidents has little or nothing in common with other
incidents on file with Project “Grudge”, therefore, these incidents
are not considered in this report. The Scientific Advisory Committee
was asked to investigate this matter and had advised that an independent
investigation be conducted in the field of atmospheric research.
Upon eliminating several additional incidents due to vagueness and
duplication, there remain 228 incidents, which are considered in this
report. Thirty of these could not be explained, because there was
found to be insufficient evidence on which to base a conclusion.
It is important to stress that Project Grudge was one of three acknowledged
U.S. Air Force projects dealing with UFO investigations – the other
two being Sign and Blue Book. Between 1948 (the year that saw the creation
of Project Sign) and 1969 (the year in which Project Blue Book was officially
terminated), 12,618 UFO reports were investigated by personnel assigned
to these three projects. According to the Air Force, out of this total
only 701 UFO reports remained unexplained; and that with respect to
the remainder, “…there was no indication of a technology beyond our
own scientific knowledge…” The Air Force further asserted (and continues
to assert to this day) that no sighting “…could be considered an extra-terrestrial
vehicle [and] throughout Project Blue Book there was never a shred of
evidence to indicate a threat to our national security.”
How then do we reconcile these statements with the Majestic documents,
the very demonstrable threats to national security posed by UFOs and
cited in the documents, and the data pertaining to UFO crash-retrievals
suggesting that at least some UFOs are alien spacecraft? It must be
noted that the bulk of the data pertaining to projects Sign, Grudge
and Blue Book was classified up to Secret level only. However, as the
Majestic documents make abundantly clear, data pertaining to crash-retrievals
was classified at Top Secret level and need-to-know clearance to access
such information was strictly required. Furthermore, consider the following
extracted from a 1969 USAF memorandum prepared by Brigadier General
C.H. Bolender, the Air Force’s Deputy Director of Development: “[R]eports
of unidentified flying objects which could affect the national security
are made in accordance with JANAP 146 or Air Force Manual 55-11, and
are not part of the Blue Book system.”
Project Grudge can be downloaded in the "Authentication" section under
Obtained from the National Archives.
Project Blue Book
On 11 September 1951, Captain Edward J. Ruppelt took over the reins
of Project Grudge; and one month later, a revamped version was established
– Grudge II. The Battelle Memorial Institute, a "think-tank" consulting
firm, was asked to prepare a statistical study of UFO reports obtained
up until that time period. Several months later, in March 1952, Grudge
II was officially designated as Project Blue Book – a project that would
remain in existence until 1969.
There can be no doubt, however, that the role of Blue Book's mission
was radically different to that of both projects Sign and Grudge. For
the most part, Blue Book's approach was directed by a panel formed in
late 1952 by the CIA known as The Scientific Advisory Panel on UFOs,
or more popularly, The Robertson Panel. Although it was determined that
there was a distinct lack of evidence to support the notions that UFOs
were extra-terrestrial in origin, the Robertson Panel nevertheless felt
that UFO sightings represented a potential danger to national security
that could be exploited for propaganda and psychological means by the
Soviets. It was this concern that prompted the Robertson Panel to conclude
that UFO mystery should be demystified. This was to be the role assigned
to Blue Book.
Whilst it is true that some staff assigned to Blue Book (such as Edward
Ruppelt) were genuinely interested in resolving the UFO mystery and
made praise-worthy moves to do so, on many occasions, bizarre and simply
inaccurate explanations were offered to try and resolve as many cases
as possible. Moreover, despite all the hype that continues to surround
Blue Book, it was never anything more than an exercise in public relations
and received minimal staffing from one officer, two clerks and a number
of typists. Until it was officially terminated in 1969, Blue Book continued
to present seemingly adequate explanations to the UFO mystery whilst
the real work went on behind the scenes. As evidence of this, consider
the following extracted from a 1969 USAF memorandum prepared by Brigadier
General C.H. Bolender, the Air Force’s Deputy Director of Development.
“Reports of unidentified flying objects which could affect the national
security are made in accordance with JANAP 146 or Air Force Manual 55-11,
and are not part of the Blue Book system.”
Project Moon Dust & Blue Fly
Although ostensibly two projects involved in the recovery and exploitation
for the US Government of foreign space debris such as crashed satellites,
rocket boosters and so on, there is intriguing data at our disposal
showing that both projects have been involved in the recovery of far
more exotic items – including possibly crashed UFOs and UFO debris.
A 1961 US Air Force document states that:
In addition to their staff duty assignments, intelligence team personnel have
peacetime duty functions in support of such Air Force projects as
Moon Dust, Blue Fly and UFO, and other AFCIN directed quick reaction
projects which require intelligence team operational capabilities.
Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO): Headquarters USAF has established
a program for investigations of reliably reported unidentified flying
objects within the United States.
Blue Fly: Operation Blue Fly has been established to facilitate expeditious
delivery to Foreign Technology Division of Moon Dust or other items
of great technological intelligence interest.
Moon Dust: As a specialized aspect of its overall material exploitation
program Headquarters USAF has established Project Moon Dust to locate,
recover, and deliver descended foreign space vehicles.
Of the approximately 1000 pages of official documentation on Moon Dust and
Blue Fly that have now been released into the public domain by the Department
of State, Air Force, Defense Intelligence Agency and CIA, one near illegible
report from 1965 is titled: "FRAGMENT METAL, RECOVERED IN THE REPUBLIC
OF THE CONGO, ORIGIN BELIEVED TO BE AN UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECT."
Similarly, a DIA paper from 1967 states the following with regard to
a UFO encounter over Agadir: "This report forwards translations of two
articles which appeared in the Potit Morocain. Each article is separately
identified as to source. Although the two articles are very contradictory,
the page one coverage afforded this sighting demonstrates a high level
of interest in the subject of UFOs, and presages future reporting which
could be valuable in pursuit of Project Moon Dust."
It should be noted to that Project Moon Dust is referenced in the 1-page
CIA paper pertaining to crashed UFOs, alien bodies, the late actress
Marilyn Monroe and the Kennedy brothers John and Robert.
The original and only documented reference to this project came in
1983 when the “Project Aquarius Briefing Document” was shown to William
L. Moore (the co-author of the book, The Roswell Incident) by
an insider source in the U.S. Intelligence community. According to the
documentation briefly revealed to Moore, Project Snowbird was established
in 1972 to research and test-fly a recovered alien spacecraft. To date,
attempts to resolve this claim via the Freedom of Information Act have
been unsuccessful. The existence of another Project Snowbird, however,
has been verified. This was a joint U.S. Army-U.S. Air Force military
exercise established in 1955 to train troops to fight in the sub-Arctic
The genesis of Project Magnet can be largely traced back to a memorandum
of 21 November 1950 that Wilbert B. Smith, an official with the Canadian
Government’s Department of Communications (and who held a B.Sc. and
a M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering), wrote to the Department of Transport.
Smith, who had a personal interest in UFOs and had studied the subject,
stated in his proposal that (a) the Canadian Government should be prompted
to establish an official UFO investigation project; and (b) that he
was on the track of something that would lead to an understanding of
both how UFOs were powered and the development of new technological
advances on Earth.
According to Smith: "The existence of a different technology is borne
out by the investigations which are being carried on at the present
time in relation to flying saucers." Smith also advised the DoT that,
having made a number of discreet inquiries at the Canadian Embassy in
Washington, DC, he had learned the following from a Dr. Robert Sarbacher:
A. The matter is the most highly classified subject in the United States government,
rating higher even than the H-bomb.
B. Flying saucers exist.
C. Their modus operandi is unknown but concentrated effort
is being made by a small group headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush.
D. The entire matter is considered by the United States authorities
to be of tremendous significance.
On receipt of the memorandum, the Canadian Department of Transport quickly
approved Smith's proposal to officially investigate UFO reports; and
on 2 December 1950, Project Magnet — a classified Canadian government
project — swung into action and a number of high-quality UFO reports
caught the attention of Magnet staff. On 10 August 1953, Smith submitted
the following report: "It appears then, that we are faced with a substantial
probability of the real existence of extraterrestrial vehicles, regardless
of whether they fit into our scheme of things. It is therefore submitted
that the next step in this investigation should be a substantial effort
toward the acquisition of as much as possible of this technology."
Three months later, at Shirleys Bay, Ontario, a station for investigating
and detecting UFOs was established; and on 8 August 1954, the equipment
"went wild," recalled Smith later. All of the available evidence suggested
that a UFO had flown in close proximity of the station. Regrettably
the entire vicinity was bathed in clouds and no visual sighting was
made; the instrumentation, however, did record a major disturbance.
Two days later, the DOT announced that Project Magnet was being shut
down. The speed with which the project was shut down has led to allegations
that a decision was taken to continue studies at a far more covert level.
It is intriguing to note, too, that in the early 1980s Dr. Robert Sarbacher
reaffirmed his knowledge of secret U.S. Government UFO investigations
overseen by Vannevar Bush and admitted that he was aware that the U.S.
had in its possession both crashed UFOs and alien bodies. Wilbert Brockhouse
Smith died on 27 December 1961, at the age of 52.
PUBLIC GOVERNMENT INVESTIGATIONS
Congressional Hearings on UFOs and Blue Book
There have only ever been two official Congressional Hearings held
on UFOs. The House Armed Services Committee convened the first such
hearing in 1966 in response to widely publicized UFO sightings and repeated
public and media criticism of the Air Force’s Project Blue Book. The
hearing had the noted support of former U.S. President, Gerald Ford,
the House Minority Leader. However, the only witnesses who testified
were allied to Project Blue Book. As a result, the Secretary of the
Air Force announced that there would be an outside, independent review
of Blue Book. This was to be the genesis of the University of Colorado’s
Scientific Study of UFOs –or the Condon Committee project (after Edward
U. Condon), as it is popularly known. Two years later, the House Science
and Astronautics Committee convened a second hearing (which occurred
during the final stages of the Condon Committee project) to review the
scientific evidence for UFOs. It took the form of a scientific symposium
in which six scientists testified and six others submitted prepared
In 1969, the Condon Committee published its findings. According to
the director of the project, physicist Dr. Edward U. Condon, no scientific
evidence existed in support of a genuine UFO mystery for UFO. The result?
It was recommended that Project Blue Book should be terminated. Critics
of the Condon Report have noted, however, that no less than 30 per cent
of the cases investigated by the committee defied explanation. According
to the critics, such as Dr. J. Allen Hynek, Dr. Condon's conclusions
were politically oriented rather than scientific: the Air Force wanted
Blue Book closed at the earliest opportunity.
Nevertheless, of the six scientists who testified as part of the University
of Colorado’s study, five were of the opinion that UFOs were still a
valid area for investigation. Of those, the late Dr. James McDonald
concluded: "My own study of the UFO problem has convinced me that we
must rapidly escalate serious scientific attention to this extra- ordinarily
Following the release of the Condon Report, Project Blue Book was set
for termination, with an announcement to that effect made in March 1969.
A formal directive was finalized in December of that year by Air Force
Secretary Robert C. Seamans, Jr. According to Seamans: "The continuation
of Project Blue Book cannot be justified either on the ground of national
security or in the interest of science.”
From the commencement of Project Sign to the conclusion of Project
Blue Book, 12,618 UFO reports were analyzed. Of these, 18% (701 cases)
were catalogued as unidentified – and nearly half of which dated from
1952. Since the close of Blue Book, the Air Force has constantly tried
to distance itself from the UFO subject – publicly, at least. The Air
Force’s current fact sheet on UFOs states that "since the termination
of Project Blue Book, nothing has occurred that would support a resumption
of UFO investigations by the Air Force." Nevertheless, as the Freedom
of Information Act has shown, official interest in the UFO subject continues
- albeit at a restricted and far more covert level than that of Project
The Robertson Panel, 1952-53
For years rumors have circulated to the effect that the Central Intelligence
Agency has been deeply implicated in the UFO mystery and in the crashed
UFO controversy in particular. These assertions are further bolstered
by the contents of the Majestic 12 documents. Nevertheless, at an official
level at least, the CIA has only confirmed its direct involvement in
one UFO study – the so-called Robertson Panel. To fully understand the
official story of the Robertson Panel, take note of the following from
the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) historian, Gerald Raines:
In January 1953, H. Marshall Chadwell [CIA Director of Scientific Intelligence]
and H. P. Robertson, a noted physicist from the California Institute
of Technology, put together a distinguished panel of nonmilitary scientists
to study the UFO issue. It included Robertson as chairman; Samuel
A. Goudsmit, a nuclear physicist from the Brookhaven National Laboratories;
Luis Alvarez, a high-energy physicist; Thornton Page, the deputy director
of the Johns Hopkins Operations Research Office and an expert on radar
and electronics; and Lloyd Berkner, a director of the Brookhaven National
Laboratories and a specialist in geophysics.
The charge to the panel was to review the available evidence on UFOs
and to consider the possible dangers of the phenomena to US national
security. The panel met from 14 to 17 January 1953. It reviewed Air
Force data on UFO case histories and, after spending 12 hours studying
the phenomena, declared that reasonable explanations could be suggested
for most, if not all, sightings. For example, after reviewing motion-picture
film taken of a UFO sighting near Tremonton, Utah, on 2 July 1952
and one near Great Falls, Montana, on 15 August 1950, the panel concluded
that the images on the Tremonton film were caused by sunlight reflecting
off seagulls and that the images at Great Falls were sunlight reflecting
off the surface of two Air Force interceptors.
The panel concluded unanimously that there was no evidence of a direct
threat to national security in the UFO sightings. Nor could the panel
find any evidence that the objects sighted might be extraterrestrials.
It did find that continued emphasis on UFO reporting might threaten
"the orderly functioning" of the government by clogging the channels
of communication with irrelevant reports and by inducing "hysterical
mass behavior" harmful to constituted authority. The panel also worried
that potential enemies contemplating an attack on the United States
might exploit the UFO phenomena and use them to disrupt US air defenses.
To meet these problems, the panel recommended that the National Security
Council debunk UFO reports and institute a policy of public education
to reassure the public of the lack of evidence behind UFOs. It suggested
using the mass media, advertising, business clubs, schools, and even
the Disney corporation to get the message across. Reporting at the
height of McCarthyism, the panel also recommended that such private
UFO groups as the Civilian Flying Saucer Investigators in Los Angeles
and the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization in Wisconsin be monitored
for subversive activitiesThe Robertson panel's conclusions were strikingly
similar to those of the earlier Air Force project reports on SIGN
and GRUDGE and to those of the CIA's own OSI Study Group. All investigative
groups found that UFO reports indicated no direct threat to national
security and no evidence of visits by extra-terrestrials.
Following the Robertson panel findings, the Agency abandoned efforts
to draft an NSCID on UFOs. The Scientific Advisory Panel on UFOs (the
Robertson panel) submitted its report to the IAC, the Secretary of
Defense, the Director of the Federal Civil Defense Administration,
and the Chairman of the National Security Resources Board. CIA officials
said no further consideration of the subject appeared warranted, although
they continued to monitor sightings in the interest of national security.
Philip Strong and Fred Durant from OSI also briefed the Office of
National Estimates on the findings. CIA officials wanted knowledge
of any Agency interest in the subject of flying saucers carefully
restricted, noting not only that the Robertson panel report was classified
but also that any mention of CIA sponsorship of the panel was forbidden.
This attitude would later cause the Agency major problems relating
to its credibility.
Despite the history of the CIA’s involvement in the UFO controversy as presented
by Haines and the Agency itself, suspicions abound that the full story
has yet to be told. Victor Marchetti, formerly of the CIA, has stated
that he heard from within “high-levels” of the Agency accounts of the
bodies of “little gray men” recovered from a crashed UFO held at Wright-Patterson
Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Similarly, the late UFO investigator Major
Donald Keyhoe learned from insider sources that the purpose of the Robertson
Panel was to debunk and demystify the UFO subject and to allow the CIA
to continue its UFO investigations at a far more covert level – something
that ties in with the material presented in the Majestic documents.
NASA and UFOs
Those with an interest in determining what has been learned by the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) about UFOs will
in most cases be presented with the following press release:
No branch of the United States Government is currently involved with or responsible
for investigations into the possibility of advanced alien civilizations
on other planets or for investigating Unidentified Flying Objects
(UFO's). The US Air Force (USAF) and the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA) have had intermittent, independent investigations
of the possibility of alien life on other planets; however, none of
these has produced factual evidence that life exists on other planets,
nor that UFO's are related to aliens. From 1947 to 1969, the Air Force
investigated UFO's; then in 1977, NASA was asked to examine the possibility
of resuming UFO investigations. After studying all of the facts available,
it was determined that nothing would be gained by further investigation,
since there was an absence of tangible evidence.
In October 1992, NASA was directed by Congress to begin a detailed
search for artificial radio signals from other civilizations under
the NASA Towards Other Planetary Systems (TOPS)/High Resolution Microwave
Survey (HRMS) program (also known as the Search for Extraterrestrial
Intelligence project). Congress directed NASA to end this project
in October 1993, citing pressures on the US Federal budget. The HRMS
did not detect any confirmed signal before it was stopped. However,
similar work continued through efforts of private groups and through
academic institutions. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Institute (SETI Institute) in Mountain View, CA, effectively replaced
the Government project, borrowing the signal processing system from
NASA. The SETI Institute is a nonprofit corporation conducting research
in a number of fields including all science and technology aspects
of astronomy and planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin
of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution.
During several space missions, NASA astronauts have reported phenomena
not immediately explainable; however, in every instance NASA determined
that the observations could not be termed "abnormal" in the space
environment. The 1947 to 1969 USAF investigations studied UFO's under
Project Blue Book. The project, headquartered at Wright-Patterson
Air Force Base, Ohio, was terminated December 17, 1969. Of the total
of 12,618 sightings reported to Project Blue Book, 701 remain "unidentified."
The decision to discontinue UFO investigations was based on an evaluation
of a report prepared by the University of Colorado entitled, "Scientific
Study of Unidentified Flying Objects;" a review of the University
of Colorado's report by the National Academy of Sciences; previous
UFO studies; and Air Force experience investigating UFO reports during
the 1940's, '50's and '60's. As a result of experience, investigations,
and studies since 1948, the conclusions of Project Blue Book were:
(1) no UFO reported, investigated, and evaluated by the Air Force
was ever a threat to our national security; (2) there was no evidence
submitted to, or discovered by, the Air Force that sightings categorized
as "unidentified" represented technological developments or principles
beyond the range of modern scientific knowledge; and (3) there was
no evidence indicating that sightings categorized as "unidentified"
were extraterrestrial vehicles.
With the termination of Project Blue Book, the USAF regulation establishing
and controlling the program for investigating and analyzing UFO's
was rescinded. Documentation regarding the former Project Blue Book
investigation was permanently transferred to the Modern Military Branch,
National Archives and Records Service, in Washington, DC 20408, and
is available for public review and analysis.
Since the termination of Project Blue Book, nothing has occurred
that would support a resumption of UFO investigations by the U.S.
Since neither NASA nor the Air Force is engaged in day-to-day UFO
research, neither one reviews UFO-related articles intended for publication,
evaluates UFO-type spacecraft drawings, or accepts accounts of UFO
sightings or applications for employment in the field of aerial phenomena
It should be noted that there are very few indications of deep involvement
in the Majestic projects on the part of NASA personnel; therefore, that
NASA should take a stance very much like that of Project Blue Book is
The Air Force, General Accounting Office, Mogul Balloons
and Crash-Test Dummies
As evidence that the controversy surrounding the so-called Roswell
Incident refuses to roll over and die, in the 1990s the Air Force published
two investigative reports pertaining to the events of July 1947. The
following is taken from the Air Force’s press release on the first report
published in 1994 in response to an inquiry launched by the General
Accounting Office — the investigative arm of Congress. The GAO’s inquiry
came as a direct result of questions initiated by the late New Mexican
Representative, Steven Schiff. According to the Air Force’s massive,
near-1000 page report (The Roswell Report: Fact vs. Fiction in the New
Mexico Desert, 1994) the debris found at Roswell was most likely from
a Mogul balloon — a Top Secret Army-Air-Force device designed to assist
the U.S. military in detecting evidence of nuclear tests by the Soviets.
But what of the reports of alien bodies? In 1997, the Air Force expanded
on this aspect of the Roswell affair in a document titled The Roswell
Report: Case Closed:
This report discusses the results of this exhaustive research and identifies
the likely sources of the claims of "alien bodies" at Roswell. Contrary
to allegations, many of the accounts appear to be descriptions of
unclassified and widely publicized Air Force scientific achievements.
Other descriptions of "bodies" appear to be actual incidents in which
Air Force members were killed or injured in the line of duty.
The conclusions are:
Air Force activities which occurred over a period of many years have
been consolidated and are now represented to have occurred in two
or three days in July 1947."Aliens" observed in the New Mexico desert
were actually anthropomorphic test dummies that were carried aloft
by U.S. Air Force high altitude balloons for scientific research.
The "unusual" military activities in the New Mexico desert were high
altitude research balloon launch and recovery operations. Reports
of military units that always seemed to arrive shortly after the crash
of a flying saucer to retrieve the saucer and "crew," were actually
accurate descriptions of Air Force personnel engaged in anthropomorphic
dummy recovery operations.
Claims of "alien bodies" at the Roswell Army Air Field hospital were
most likely a combination of two separate incidents:
- a 1956 KC-97 aircraft accident in which 11 Air Force members lost their lives;
- a 1959 manned balloon mishap in which two Air Force pilots were
injured. This report is based on thoroughly documented research
supported by official records, technical reports, film footage,
photographs, and interviews with individuals who were involved in
Despite the Air Force’s attempts to diffuse the controversy surrounding the
Roswell events of 1947 and preempt the GAO’s findings, it is significant
to note several key factors. First, Mogul balloons possessed no unusual
characteristics such as those described by the witnesses to the event.
Second, the crash-test dummy experiments that the Air Force asserts
led to the legends of alien bodies being recovered were not initiated
until the 1950s. Third, during the course of its investigation, the
GAO learned that all of the administrative records of Roswell Army Air
Field from March 1945 until December 1949 and all outgoing messages
from the base from October 1946 to December 1949 had been inexplicably
destroyed. The Roswell enigma continues — despite the best efforts of
the Air Force to lay the matter to rest.
FBI Investigation of the Eisenhower Briefing Document
FBI Connection, by Nick Redfern (118k)
The COMETA Report
The Association of COMETA has asked www.majesticdocuments.com to not
provide a complete copy of the report. They have committed to publish an
English version, but the details as to when it will be available and
how much are unclear.
Originally published in France in 1999, the Cometa Report (titled UFOs and
Defense: What Should We Prepare For?) made a valuable contribution
to the subject of UFOs. The following is extracted from an opening statement
contained in the report from French Air Force General Denis Letty and
gives valuable background data on Cometa and its findings. “The accumulation
of well-documented sightings made by credible witnesses forces us to
consider from now on all of the hypotheses regarding the origin of unidentified
flying objects, or UFOs, and the extraterrestrial hypothesis, in particular.”
The document continues:
Although no characterized threat has been perceived to date in France, it seemed necessary to the former auditors of the Institut des Hautes Etudes de Defense Nationale (IHEDN) to take stock of the subject. Along with qualified experts from extremely varied backgrounds, they are grouped together to form a private in-depth fact-finding committee, which was christened COMETA. This committee was transformed into a COMETA association, which I chair.
COMETA members included: Air Force General Bruno Le Moine, weapons engineer
General Pierre Bescond and Chief of Police Denis Blancher. Those who
contributed to the study included: Edmond Campagnac, former Technical
Director of Air France; Squadron Commander Michel Perrier; and Air Force
General Joseph Domage. Among the subjects covered within the report
are: the testimony of French pilots who had seen UFOs; close encounters
in France; aeronautical cases from around the world; radar-based UFO
incidents; and political, religious and scientific implications relating
to the UFO mystery. The July 1947 events at Roswell, New Mexico are
also covered in an appendix titled “The Roswell Affair – Disinformation.”
This section makes a valuable contribution to the way in which the U.S.
government’s program of disinformation has been utilized to successfully
diffuse interest in, and confuse the truth surrounding, the Roswell